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  • What are the parameters required for interface elements in GeoFEA?
    • GeoFEA does not have interface elements for both 2D and 3D versions as we understand the inherent problem with interface elements. We also noted the difficulty involved when deriving the correct parameters when we uses a more complex formulation for an advanced interface elements. In view of the above, we had been recommending alternative to the use of interface elements. The interface elements are usually used to simulate the reduced friction between the wall or pile elements and the soil. Therefore, we recommend applying a friction factor ranging between 1/3 and 2/3 of the soil friction angle as the friction angle for the set of relatively thin soil elements adjoining the structural elements. This will mimic the soil-structure interface behaviour. Typical values of this friction factor can be found in NAVFAC standards. Other parameters will follows that of the soil elements adjacent to them. The advantage to this is the zero thickness of the interface element causing numerical instability can be avoided. The derivation of the interface properties is much easier and these values can be referenced for different frictional behaviour between two materials according to NAVFAC standards. The disadvantage is the use of more elements and degree-of-freedoms in the computation. There is an inherent difficulty in specifying tension cut-off value for soil. .

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